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  • Echocardiography

  • Heart and mind: prescription

  • Diet and heart disease

  • Risk factors for heart attack: what are your personal risk factors?

  • How to recognize angina and heart attack: what is angina pectoris ? angina’s causes and how to recognize

    Q. What is angina pectoris ?

    A. Angina is a heart pain that lasts for short duration (a few minutes). It can be

    Q. What is the cause ?

    A. As discussed in the previous chapter, it is caused by the partial obstruction of a coronary artery by fatty (cholesterol) deposits, so that the blood supply to a segment of the heart is reduced. The supply may be sufficient during rest, but when the demands of the heart are increased due to exertion, the supply becomes insufficient.

    Q. How can one recognize angina ?

    A. Angina is recognized by its symptoms, their character, pain radiation, and so on. The pain is constricting, squeezing, or choking, or as if a heavy weight has been placed on the chest. Some patients experience severe burning pain in the pit of the stomach or behind the lower end of the sternum (breast bone) and insist that the pain is due to severe dyspepsia. The pain is usually located in the central portion of the front of the chest in the region of the lower portion of the breast bone. Although the heart lies more to the left, the pain is rarely left-sided. The pain may radiate to the left shoulder and arm, right shoulder and arm or both, to the neck or lower jaw or directly to the back into the area between the two shoulder blades. Sometimes, no pain may be felt in the chest but only in one of the sites of radiation, i.e., shoulder, arm, neck, jaw or even pit of the stomach. The patient may feel very anxious.


    Cardio & Blood


  • Electrocardiography: how is an ecg taken? what information does the doctor get from the ecg?

  • Heart and mind: the cost

  • After heart attack: exercising for future fitness

  • Risk factors for heart attack: psycho-social stress and risk personality

  • How to recognize angina and heart attack: myocardial infarction

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